Python Programming Bootcamp 2019 | Learn to Code in Python [Tutorial and Exercises]


In this lecture, you will see values act as
the most basic (or primitive) data elements necessary to form not only variables, but
any expressions. A prominent example of conditional statements
in Python is the “If” statement. What you can use it for is intuitive, but
it is very important to learn the syntax. Think of the following: if 5 equals 15 divided
by 3, then print “Hooray!” First, don’t forget we should use the double
equality sign here, because we are checking whether 5 is equal to 15 divided by 3, and
we are not assigning the value of 15 divided by 3 to be 5. 5 is not a variable name; it is a number.  Good. Now it is crucial to place a colon. The colon will tell the computer what to do
if the condition we just wrote has been satisfied. For achieving good legibility, we advise you
to write the print statement on a new line. Please, remember it should be indented; otherwise,
you will run into an error. All right, now this should work correctly. Yes, 5 is equal to 15 divided by 3. Hooray! 
Will it work if we check for 5 being equal to 18 divided by 3? It is not supposed to, since 5 differs from
6. We got nothing, because we have not told the
machine what to do, if the provided condition is not satisfied. So, there is no reason for the machine to
print out “Hooray!” The graph could help you imagine the process
of the conditionals. Before it displays the outcome of the operation,
the machine follows these logical steps. If the conditional code is not to be executed
because the if-condition is not true, our program will directly lead us to some other
output or, as it is in our case, to nothing. After any of the two situations, the machine
will go to the next black point and will progress from there on. Let’s try with an inequality sign, which
can be written with an exclamation mark and an equals sign. Isn’t 5 different from 3 times 6? Yes, it is. It is True that it is different. Hence, we have “Hooray!” as an output. This was a brief introduction to if-statements. This logic will help you proceed to the next
lecture, where we will complicate things a little bit. But not too much  Let’s assign the value of 1 to x. We can ask the computer to display “Case
1” if x is greater than 3, and “Case 2” if it is less than or equal to 3. Ok, we could write two if-statements one after
the other. Let’s see if we get the correct outcome. Yes, we are in case 2. There is a shorter and better way to express
ourselves here. In the second part, instead of saying “If
x is smaller than or equal to 3”, we could write directly “else” and insert a colon. “Else” will tell the computer to execute
the successive command in all other cases. In our little program, that would mean “in
all cases when x is not greater than 3”. That translates into “when x is less than
or equal to 3”. Let’s verify if what we did was correct. Bingo! Case number 2! This picture adds up to the one we saw in
the previous lesson. Instead of leading to no output, if the condition
is false, we will get to an else code. In our case, this is the command “print
“case 2”. Regardless whether the initial condition is
satisfied, we will get to the end point, so the computer has concluded the entire operation
and is ready to execute a new one. Wonderful! Now, please allow me to share two notes on
the subject. Don’t fall into the trap of organizing your
code on a whim. There is a strict manner to do that, and indentation
plays a key role again. Should you put the “else” keyword, just
underneath the first print word, nothing will happen. Remember to place the if and the else keywords
on the same vertical line! This is the right moment to introduce you
to the notion of blocks of code. The if-statement, meaning the condition plus
the relevant “print” command, form the first block of code. The entire else-statement forms another block
of code on its own. In a long sheet with much code, you’ll have
a whole lot of blocks. And larger programs are constructed on a block
by block basis. In this lesson, we’ll learn an elegant way
of adding a second “if” statement to one of our expressions. This is done with the help of the elif keyword,
as shown in this example. If y is not greater than 5, the computer will
think: “else if y is less than 5”, written “elif y is less than 5”, then I will print
out “Less”. And the else-statement follows as a tail with
the respective block that says “return “Equal”. Let’s confirm we wrote the code correctly. We can print out the “compare to five”
function with a value of y equal to 10 in the following way… then we’ll expect to
see a statement that says “Greater” because 10 is greater than 5. Correct? Ok. Perfect. What if we carry out this operation for the
number 2? The machine tells us that 2 is less than 5. And that’s what we expected. To obtain the third outcome, we must compare
the number 5 with a number that is not greater or smaller than 5. This will happen only if the argument of the
function is 5, right? Shall we try this one? Great! We obtained “Equal”, as expected. Know that you can add as many elif- statements
as you need. Let’s provide an example. If y is less than 0, the string “Negative”
should be displayed. I will place this block between the if and
the other elif statement. Let’s see what happens. The function with an argument of minus 3 shows
“negative”, just as it should. Let me just control whether our little program
will run properly if I asked it to “compare to five” a value that lies in the range
between 0 and 5, say 3. Yes, we see “Less”, so everything is ok. A very important detail you should try to
remember is the computer always reads your commands from top to bottom. Regardless of the speed at which it works,
it executes only one command at a time. Scientifically speaking, the instructions
we give to the machine are part of a control flow. This is something like the flow of the logical
thought of the computer, the way the computer thinks – step by step, executing the steps
in a rigid order. When it works with a conditional statement,
the computer’s task will be to execute a specific command once a certain condition
has been satisfied. It will read your commands from the if- statement
at the top, through the elif-statements in the middle, to the else- statement at the
end. The first moment the machine finds a satisfied
condition, it will print the respective output and will execute no other part of the code
from this conditional. In our example, if the first statement is
correct, we will see the corresponding output number 1, which is printing the string “Greater”. The computer will disregard the elif and the
else statements, and will proceed with the rest of the code. If the first statement is not correct, we
will move forward, and the computer will check whether our second statement is true. If yes, we will see output number 2, which
is printing the string “Negative”. If not, we will get to statement number 3
and so on until the computer finds a satisfactory outcome to print out. Now, I will switch the order of the two elif
statements to prove that the order of instructions matters. Ok? Let me print “compare to five” of minus
3. Ha! Instead of “Negative” we obtained “Less”. This is how the computer reasons: assume y
equals -3. Print out “Greater” if y is greater than
5. Is it greater than 5? No, so the computer continues and checks if
there are any other statements in our code. Given we have other statements, it moves forward. So, is y less than 5? Yes, it is. At this moment, the computer thinks, “Lovely,
I got it! My number is less than 5, I satisfy what my
programmer asked me to do, I print out “Less” and I am fine”. And the machine stops there and does not execute
a single letter of the code that follows in this block. The fact that you examined the cases when
y is less than 0 or equal precisely to 5 have no application. They become useless. Whether you ask for the output of minus 3
or 3, you will still have to be satisfied with the “Less” label. You found this interesting, didn’t you? Stay focused for the next lecture, when we
will share something more about computational logic. You probably noticed we talked about Boolean
values a few times. Here, we would like to provide a short video
that aims to explain their application. Let x be equal to 2. What you see next is the following if-else
construction: – if the value of the x variable is greater than 4, print out “Correct”. In all other cases, print “Incorrect”. So, which is the Boolean element we have in
this computational logic? Basically, after you insert your if-statement,
the computer will attach a Boolean value to it. Depending on the value of its outcome, “True”
or “False”, it will produce one of the suggested outputs, “Correct” or “Incorrect”. If the first statement is True, that is, if
x is greater than 4, the machine will print the corresponding statement “Correct”. Else, which means if the statement “x greater
than 4” is untrue, or more precisely “False”, the statement “Incorrect” will be printed. From a certain perspective, everything in
a computer system is Boolean, comprising sequences of 0s and 1s, “False” and “True”. This is why we are paying attention to the
Boolean value. It helps us understand general computational
logic and the way conditionals work in Python. Ok. Excellent. Now, you know more about conditionals in Python,
and you understand the control flow of if-, elif-, and else- statements. In addition, you saw, once more, complying
with the Pythonic syntax is crucial for the execution of your code. Where you type the colon sign and indentation
matters. Last, you saw the order in which you declare
your commands leads to a specific outcome. If you change the order of your commands,
the outcome could change, and this may take you to undesired results. Wonderful! Great! Let’s step it up a notch. Starting from this lesson, we’ll deal with
Python’s functions – an invaluable tool for programmers. The best way of learning is by doing, so let’s
create a function and see how it can be applied. To tell the computer you are about to create
a function, just write def at the beginning of the line. Def is neither a command nor a function. It is a keyword. To indicate this, Jupyter will automatically
change its font color to green. Then, you can type the name of the function
you will use. For instance, simple, as we will create a
very simple function. Then we can add a pair of parentheses. Technically, within these parentheses, you
could place the parameters of the function if it requires you to have any. It is no problem to have a function with zero
parameters. This is the case with the function we are
creating right now. To proceed, don’t miss to put a colon after
the name of the function. Since it is inconvenient to continue on the
same line when the function becomes longer, it is much better to build the habit of laying
the instructions on a new line, with an indent again. Good legibility counts for а good style of
coding! All right, let’s see what will happen when
we ask the machine to print a sentence. Not much, at least for now. The computer created the function “simple”
that can print out “My first function”, but that was all. To apply the function, we must call it. We must ask the function to do its job. So, we will obtain its result once we type
its name, “simple”, and parentheses. See? Great! Ok, good. Our next task will be to create a function
with a parameter. Let it be “plus ten” with a parameter
”a”, that gives us the sum of “a” and 10 as a result… Always begin with the “def” keyword. Then, type the name of the function, “plus
ten”, and in parentheses, designate the parameter “a”. The last thing to write on this line would
be the colon sign. Good. What comes next is very important. Don’t forget to return a value from the
function. If we look at the function we wrote in the
previous lesson, there was no value to return; it printed a certain statement. Things are different here. We will need this function to do a specific
calculation for us and not just print something. Type “return “a” plus 10”. This will be the body of this function. Now, let’s call “plus ten” with an argument
2 specified in parentheses. Amazing! It works. Once we’ve created a function, we can run
it repeatedly, changing its argument. I could run “plus ten” with an argument
of 5, and this time, the answer will be 15. Great! Pay attention to the following. When we define a function, we specify in parentheses
a parameter. In the “plus ten” function, “a” is
a parameter. Later, when we call this function, it is correct
to say we provide an argument, not a parameter. So we can say “call plus ten with an argument
of 2, call plus ten with an argument of 5”. People often confuse print and return, and
the type of situations when we can apply them. To understand the concept better, try to imagine
the following. There is an argument x, which serves as an
input in a function, like the one we have here. The function in this case is x plus 10. Given that x is an input, we can think of
it as a value we already know, so the combination of x and the function will give us the output
value y. Well, in programming, return regards the value
of y; it just says to the machine “after the operations executed by the function f,
return to me the value of y”. “Return” plays a connection between the
second and the third step of the process. In other words, a function can take an input
of one or more variables and return a single output composed of one or more values. This is why “return” can be used only
once in a function. Therefore, we can say the concept of a function
applies to programming almost perfectly. There are some extra advantages to consider. You could also assign a more intuitive name
to a function – “plus ten” or “addition of 10”, and the function will still run
correctly. This is a sign of good design. On a sheet with one thousand lines of code,
if you call all your functions x1, x2, x3 and so on, your colleagues will be confused
and utterly unhappy. Naming functions clearly and concisely makes
your programming code easy to understand, and it will be accepted as one of good style. There is another way in which you could organize
the definition of your function. Start by defining “plus ten” with an argument
of “a” and a colon. On the next line, instead of directly returning
the value of “a” plus 10, another variable can be created inside the function to carry
that value. I will use the name “result” here. I will assign it with the desired value of
“a” plus 10. Let’s check what we just did. If I execute the code in the cell, I will
get nothing. Why? Because to this moment, I have only declared
the variable “result” in the body of our function. Naturally, to obtain the desired outcome,
I will also have to return that variable. See? When I call “plus ten” with an argument
of 2, I obtain 12. It is all fine again. “Print” takes a statement or, better,
an object, and provides its printed representation in the output cell. It just makes a certain statement visible
to the programmer. A good reason to do that would be when you
have a huge amount of code, and you want to see the intermediary steps of your program
printed out, so you can follow the control flow. Otherwise, print does not affect the calculation
of the output. Differently, return does not visualize the
output. It specifies what a certain function is supposed
to give back. It’s important you understand what each
of the two keywords does. This will help you a great deal when working
with functions. The following could be helpful. Let that same function also print out the
statement “outcome”. If we put down only “return outcome”,
and then “return result”, what will we get when we call the function? Just the first object to return – the statement
“outcome”. If, instead, we print that statement and then
return ‘result’, we will get what we wanted: the “outcome” statement and the result
of the calculation – 15. This was to show you we can return only a
single result out of a function. It isn’t a secret we can have a function
within the function. For instance, let’s define a function called
‘wage’ that calculates your daily wage. Say you use working hours as a parameter,
and you are paid 25 dollars per hour. So this should work. Ok. Good. Notice I don’t technically need the print
command here. I could print out the wage afterwards, but
I don’t really need to. So, I’ll proceed this way, just returning
the value I need. When you do well in a day, your boss will
be very happy to give a bonus of 50 dollars added to your salary. Hence, I’ll define a “with bonus” function
for you. And as a parameter, I will take again the
working hours. But this time, I will allow myself to return
directly the wage with working hours as an output, which would be the value obtained
after the wage function has been run, plus the extra 50 dollars you’ve earned. This is how the first function is involved
in the output of the second one – a function within the function! Let’s see what the output will be if you
worked 8 hours today and the boss was very happy with your performance. Wage with an argument 8, and “with bonus”
with an argument 8. Great! 200 of base compensation and 250 with the
bonus! We know how to work with if statements, and
we know how to work with functions. In this lesson, we’ll learn how to combine
the two. This is a fundamental concept in programming,
so please pay attention! You’ll encounter it quite regularly when
coding. Johnny’s mom told him that, by the end of
the week, if he has saved at least 100 dollars, she would give him an extra 10 dollars. If he did not manage to save at least 100
dollars, though, she would prefer not to give him the extra cash. Clear. Now, let’s define a function called “add
10”, which takes as a parameter the unknown “m” that represents the money Johnny saved
by the end of the week. What should we tell the computer to do? If “m” is greater than or equal to 100,
then add 10 to the saved amount. If it is not, return a statement that lets
us know Johnny should save more. That is, if “m” is greater than or equal
to a hundred, let “m” assume the value of “m” plus 10. Yes, it is what you saw! We have “m” on both sides of the equation,
and that is perfectly fine. As a matter of fact, it is not an equation. Remember that the “equality” sign stands
for assigning the expression on the right side to what is written on the left side. Let’s complete the if-part with “return
m”. To sum up, logically, we mention “m” as
a parameter. Then, we substitute its value with a value
greater than “m” with 10. At the end, we say: from now on, return a
value equal to the new “m”. Finally, in all other cases say, for instance,
“Save more!” (Johnny should learn it is a good habit to
have some cash on the side, right?) Let’s see if our intuition was correct. “Add 10” of 110 – good, 120! And if “m” was equal to 50…? Amazing! Everything is correct! When you think of it from a logical perspective,
it makes sense, doesn’t it? What would you use a computer for – to solve
problems for you. And it can do that through functions. You’ll most probably need to ask the machine
to execute something if a given parameter is within certain limits and ask it to execute
another thing if the parameter is beyond these limits. Therefore, combining your knowledge about
conditionals and functions in Python comes right on the money. Great! Just keep the pace for our next video! We are almost there. In this lesson, we’ll learn how to work
with more than one parameter in a function. The way this is done in Python is by enlisting
all the arguments within the parentheses, separated by a comma. Shall I call the function we have here for,
say, 10, 3, and 2? I get 4. Seems easy to add a few parameters, right? And it is! Just be careful with the order in which you
state their values. In our case, I assigned 10 to the variable
a, 3 to b, and 2 to c. Otherwise, the order won’t matter if and
only if you specify the names of the variables within the parentheses like this: b equals
3, a equals 10, and c equals 2. And of course, we could obtain the same answer
– 4! This is how we can work with functions that
have multiple arguments. Awesome! Let’s see what’s next! When you install Python on your computer,
you are also installing some of its built-in functions. This means you won’t need to type their
code every time you use them – these functions are already on your computer and can be applied
directly. As a matter of fact, you saw examples of built-in
functions in the lesson about data types. The function “type” allows you to obtain
the type of variable you use as an argument, like in this cell – “Type” of 10 gives
“int” for integer. The “int”, “float”, and “string”
functions transform their arguments in an integer, float, and string data type, respectively. This is why 5.0 was converted to 5, 3 was
converted to 3.0, and the number 500 became text. Great! Now, let me show you a few other built-in
functions that are quite useful. “Max” returns the highest value from a
sequence of numbers. This is why “Max” returned a value of
30 as an output in this cell. Good. “Min” does just the opposite – it returns
the lowest value from a sequence. So, we get 10 in that cell over here – it
is the smallest among 10, 20, and 30. Another built-in function, “Abs”, allows
you to obtain the absolute value of its argument. Let “z” be equal to minus 20. If we apply the “abs” function to “z”,
the result will be its absolute value of 20. See? Perfect! An essential function that can help you a
great deal is “sum”. It will calculate the sum of all the elements
in a list designated as an argument. Consider the following list made of 1, 2,
3, and 4 as its data. When I type “sum list 1”, my output will
be equal to 1 plus 2 plus 3 plus 4. The sum of these numbers equals 10. “Round” returns the float of its argument,
rounded to a specified number of digits after the decimal point. “Round” 3.555 with 2 digits after the
decimal point will turn into 3.56. If the number of digits is not indicated,
it defaults to zero. 3.2 is rounded down to 3.0. Great! If you are interested in elevating 2 to the
power of 10, you know you could type “2 double star 10”. You can get the same result if you use the
“pow” function, which stands for “power”. Write “pow”, and in the “parentheses”,
specify the base and the power, separated by a comma. In our case, “2 comma 10”. Execute with “Shift and Enter” and…
voilà! 1024! And what if you wanted to see how many elements
there are in an object? The “Len” function, as in “length”,
is going to help you do that. If you choose a string as an argument, the
“Len” function will tell you how many characters there are in a word. For instance, in the word “Mathematics”,
we have 11 characters. There are many other built-in functions in
Python, but these are a few examples you will often need to use when programming. Great! We’ve made excellent progress so far! By now, you know a bit more about Python’s
syntax, about if, elif, and else statements, and about functions. In this section, we’ll cover an important
topic for Python programming – lists. So, what is a list? A list is a type of sequence of data points
such as floats, integers, or strings. Therefore, understanding lists relates to
your ability to organize data – a crucial skill in today’s labor market. Moreover, you’ll see Python creates a friendly
environment for dealing with lists. Assume you wanted to create a list called
Participants that contains the names of John, Leila, Gregory, and Cate. Follow the rules about creating a generic
variable. But be careful about two things: place the
strings within square brackets and make sure you use quotation marks. Precisely, these brackets indicate the elements
inside form a list and not some other type of a sequence. Good, we see the Participants list has already
been prepared. Am I going to be able to extract the name
of one member of the group? Of course, I can. Do you remember how we extracted the letter
‘d’ from Friday? Using brackets after the word “Friday”. The logic here is the same. I’ll write the name of the list, and in
brackets, I’ll indicate the position corresponding to the name I am interested in. It is important that I don’t use parentheses
or braces. For instance, let me extract the name of Leila. As programmers, we start counting from zero,
so: 0, 1… 1 should be the correct position! And it is! For the sake of argument, in such a situation,
a computer scientist might say you have accessed the list by indexing the value 1. This means you have extracted the second of
the elements in this list variable. Ok, nice. In addition, there is a way to get to the
last element from your list –start counting from the end towards the beginning. Then, you’d need the minus sign before the
digit and don’t fall in the trap of thinking we begin enumerating from 0 again! To obtain “Cate”, we have to write -1;
to obtain “Gregory” we need -2. Ok! Now, let’s study a key feature of lists – replacing
or deleting items in a list. Let’s assume Kate had to quit for some reason,
but Maria could replace her. Here’s what we can do: access the value at
position number three, which currently refers to “Cate”, and assign it with the string
“Maria”. Let’s check if our intuition was correct. 100 percent! Amazing! Another scenario: unfortunately, Gregory got
a better offer somewhere else, so he quit as well. There is nobody to replace him, but we must
adjust our list accordingly. The del keyword could deliver the required
result. Type del, then correctly index Gregory’s
position by typing “Participants 2” and… voilà! Important to note is that deleting an element
changes the indices of all successive elements. After removing Gregory, Maria’s position
shifted one place to the left and is now at the second position. There is no element at the third position. So, a new name, “Dwayne”, needs to be
added to the “Participants” list, and we’ll use a method called “append”. Think of the terms method and function as
interchangeable, because in practice, methods work quite like functions. However, the technically correct term to use
in this situation is “method”. Here is the syntax that allows you to call
ready-made built-in methods that you do not have to create on your own and can be used
in Python directly. After the name of the object, which in this
case is the “Participants” list, we’ll put a dot called a dot operator. The dot operator allows you to call on or
invoke a certain method. To call the method “append”, state its
name, followed by parentheses. To insert the name “Dwayne” in our list,
we must put the string “Dwayne” in inverted commas between the parentheses. After we execute the cell, we should have
Dwayne added to our group. Shift and Enter… Correct! Great! Remember this general structure, because we
have to comply with it, if we wish to call any existing method in Python. Alternatively, the same result can be achieved
by using the “extend” method. Let’s invite George and Catherine in our
group. First, let’s invoke the “extend” method. Ok, good. This time, within the parentheses, we’ll
have to add brackets, as we are going to extend the “Participants” list by adding a list
specified precisely in these parentheses. Execute through Shift and Enter and… you’ll
have the two pieces attached – the initial Participants list and the extension. Thus, you still managed to enlarge your original
list, right? A couple more things before we close this
lesson. First, let me show you that lists’ elements
are directly treated as string values. After printing this command, we can see the
first participant in our list is John. It was not necessary to put any quotation
marks around the “Participants” element to do that. Perfect! Finally, the “Len” built-in function counts
the number of elements in an object. For instance, if our word is “Dolphin”,
this function tells us it is composed of 7 letters. More importantly, though, this same function
can be applied for obtaining the number of elements in a list. Applied to the list we have here, it shows
us the list entails six members. Awesome! To summarize, observe how a built-in function
takes the object “Participants” as an argument, while when we are calling built-in
methods, they are applied to the “Participants” list with the help of the dot operator. The different syntax helps you distinguish
between the two. By the way, lists can be sliced, too. But more on that in our next video. In this lesson, we’ll introduce you to another
very important concept – slicing. In the future, when working in Python, you’ll
typically have to deal with data that is quite big. Many of the problems that must be solved will
regard a tiny portion of the data, and in such cases, you can apply slicing. Imagine you want to use the “Participants”
list we saw earlier to obtain a second much smaller list that contains only two names
– Leila and Maria. In Pythonic, that would mean to extract the
elements from the first and second position. To access these elements, we will open square
brackets, just as we did with indexing, and write 1 colon 3. The first number corresponds precisely to
the first position of interest, while the second number is one position above the last
position we need. In our case, 2 plus 1 equals 3. Correct. We can say we just sliced our Participants
list to obtain a new one with the names Leila and Maria. I know this piece of syntax seems a bit strange,
but it is not that illogical. Let’s get the first two names from the list,
John and Leila. In this case, you don’t need a number at
the beginning, and you can start by typing a colon. Ok, so by typing colon 2, we get exactly the
first 2 elements. Very good! And how can I obtain the last two? One way would be to indicate the fourth position,
corresponding to “George”, and leaving nothing after the colon. This would mean we will extract all the elements
from the fourth position included to the end of our list. Another way to obtain the same result would
be to put a minus sign in front of the number 2. Thus, Python will revert the direction of
counting, starting from the end towards the beginning. How many elements are we asking for? 2. Let’s execute. And here’s the output – we’ve obtained
George and Catherine in a new list. Perfect. Ok, let’s check out some additional methods
that can be applied to lists. Assume you know “Maria” is in your list,
but you don’t know her position. In other words, you’d like to obtain the
index of the element “Maria” from the Participants list. Just call the index method and indicate the
string variable of interest in parentheses. The machine tells us Maria is in the second
position. And it is. The next functionality is an interesting one. I will show you it is possible to create a
list of lists. My goal will be to create a list, called “Bigger
List”, which contains the “Participants” list, and a new one I will call “Newcomers”. Let the latter enclose the names of Joshua
and Brittany. Shift and Enter… Ok, we created “Newcomers”. All I need to do in the next cell is write
the name of the variable “Bigger List” and cite within brackets the names of the
lists I would like to include. Let’s verify if this works. Yes, it does. The two lists are shown in the suggested order. Great! An important method that could order the names
of your participants in alphabetical order is sort. As you can see, after applying it to our list,
Catherine comes first and Peter is last. If within the brackets, we say we would like
the names to be sorted in a reversed order by stating “reverse equals True”, Peter
would be first and Catherine last. Naturally, if our elements were sheer numbers,
instead of people’s names, this method would function without any problems. Observe how, in this example, I sorted the
numbers from 1 to 5 from the smallest to the largest. And here – from the largest to the smallest. Wonderful! This was a very important lecture. Tuples are another type of data sequences,
but differently to lists, they are immutable. Tuples cannot be changed or modified; you
cannot append or delete elements. The syntax that indicates you are having a
tuple and not a list is that the tuple’s elements are placed within parentheses and
not brackets. By the way, the tuple is the default sequence
type in Python, so if I enlist three values here, the computer will perceive the new variable
as a tuple. We could also say the three values will be
packed into a tuple. For the same reason, we can assign a number
of values to the same number of variables. Do you remember we went through that a few
lectures ago? On the left side of the equality sign, we
just added a tuple of variables, and on the right, a tuple of values. That’s why the relevant technical term for
this activity is tuple assignment. In the same way we did for lists, we can index
values by indicating their position in brackets. That’s why we obtained the first number
from the tuple x, namely 40. In addition, we can also place tuples within
lists. And then, each tuple becomes a separate element
within the list. Tuples are similar to lists, but there are
some subtle differences we should not overlook. They can be quite useful when dealing with
different comma-separated values. For example, if we have age and years of school
as variables, and I have the respective numbers in a string format, separated by a comma (hence
the name comma-separated values), the split method with the proper indication within the
parentheses will assign 30 as a value for age and 17 as a value for years of school. We can print the two variables separately
to check the outcome… Everything seems to be correct – awesome! Last, functions can provide tuples as return
values. This is useful because a function (which can
only return a single value otherwise), can produce a tuple holding multiple values. Check this code; I will input only the length
of the side of a square, and as an output, the “square info” function will return
a tuple. The tuple will tell me the area and the perimeter
of the square. This is how we can work with tuples in Python! Now that you know what lists and tuples are,
you will more quickly understand what dictionaries are about. Dictionaries represent another way of storing
data. Each value is associated with a certain key. More precisely, a key and its respective value
form a key-value pair. In this example, we have four keys. Different names of animals are attached to
each one of them. Pay attention that neither parentheses nor
brackets will work in this case – you need curly braces. After a certain dictionary has been created,
a value can be accessed by its key, instead of its index! K1 can be used for cat, while K3 – a mouse! Similarly, as we could do with lists, we can
add a new value to the dictionary in the following way: the structure to apply here is dictionary
name, new key name within brackets, equality sign, and the name of the new value. The value we’ll assign to key number 5 is
parrot. I’ll press Shift plus Enter and… we are
goоd to go. Replacing a value follows the same syntax;
just let the new variable correspond to an existing key. From that moment on, attached to the second
key, we won’t see a dog anymore. Ha, it’s a squirrel now! You feel a list should be able to take part
in a key-value pair. And you are right. Let’s turn to another example. Say, only Peter works in department 1, but
three people work in department 2 – Jennifer, Michael, and Tommy. Shall we verify? Right. Therefore, our second element is a list. There is another way to fill in a dictionary. I’ll create a new variable and will use
empty curly braces to indicate it’ll be a dictionary. I will not place any keys or values within
the braces. Instead, I will assign the keys and the values
one by one, and at the end, my dictionary will be full. Quite nice! And if I asked for the center, I will see
Hector’s name. Let me introduce you to an interesting Python
feature. If the get function gives us the name of the
Small Forward of a given team, the machine won’t display an error if we ask for the
name of the coach, whose name does not take part in my dictionary. “None” is the default value Python returns
in cases where an object does not actually exist within a given dictionary. Now, you can imagine that dictionaries could
do a great job, sometimes. For instance, when using companies’ names
as keys and their prices on the market as values… right? Bravo! You are going deeper into programming! Remember things will remain quite abstract,
unless you take the time to practice and apply what you’ve learned in these lessons. Iteration is a fundamental building block
of all programs. It is the ability to execute a certain code
repeatedly. In this section, we will focus on a few examples
of iteration processes in Python. To begin, we have prepared a list, called
“even”. It contains all the even numbers from 0 to
20. Imagine we want these numbers printed out. So, we can write the following
“for n in even”, colon, which would mean for every element n in the list “even”,
do the following: print that element. In this case, n is called the loop variable. It is not required to have called it n; any
other name would have worked fine. The phrase print n acts as the body of our
loop. Don’t forget it should be indented to run
the loop properly. The command in the loop body is performed
once for each element in the even list. Now, let’s go over the steps implied by
this piece of code. The loop starts by taking an element n from
our list. Then, the computer executes the body of the
loop. In our case, it will simply print that variable. When the computer is done with this operation,
called iteration (or pass) of the loop, Python will go back to the for statement and pick
the next element “n” that is in the “even” list. It will then print it out and so on and so
forth until the loop body has been executed for all available elements in the list. Right, let’s apply this code to see the
outcome. Exactly as expected, all numbers were stated
in a column. What if we wanted to see them ordered in a
single line? A comma after the element “n” in the command
“print n” will help us achieve that. The comma will indicate every next element
from the loop should be placed on the same row. This was a short but important introduction
to the concept of Iteration in programming. The same output we obtained in the previous
lesson could be achieved after using a while loop, instead of a for loop. However, the structure we will use will be
slightly different. Initially, we will set a variable x equal
to zero. And we’ll say: while this value is smaller
than or equal to 20, print x. But please be very careful! And I mean it! If you leave the code until here, you will
run into an infinite loop, and your computer will crash! This is a situation you want to avoid, right? So be very careful; since x will always be
smaller than 20, your loop will be infinite. It will iterate the same variable repeatedly. This is what we did here with x=0. And “always” is not what we want in an
iteration. We want to get the loop to end. What is supposed to succeed, the loop body
in the “while” block, is a line of code that specifies a change in x or what has to
happen to x after it is printed. In our case, we will tell the computer to
bind x to a value equal to x plus two. Let’s see if this works. Awesome! This is much better. Actually, there is a term for what we just
did. In programming terms, adding the same number
on top of an existing variable during a loop is called incrementing. The amount being progressively added is called
an increment. In our case, we have an increment of 2. Furthermore, the Pythonic syntax offers a
special way to indicate incrementing. “X Plus equals two” shows we are incrementing
the value of 2 on top of the base x, just as if we had typed “x equals x plus 2”. As you can see, the two outcomes are the same. To conclude, whether you will use a for or
a while loop will depend mainly on your personal preferences. What matters is that your code does not crash
and provides correct results, right?  Python’s built-in range function can help
us by creating a list of numbers. The syntax of the function is the following:
type “range” and in parentheses mark a start, stop, and step value. The start value will be the first number in
the list. The stop value will be greater than the last
value in the list. It is going to be equal to the last number
plus one (just classical Pythonic logic, right?). The so-called step value represents the distance
between each two consecutive values on the list. The stop value is a required input, while
the start and step values are optional. If not provided, the start value will be automatically
replaced with a 0, and the step value would be assumed to be equal to 1. You could also remember the stop value as
most important, the start value as less important, and the step value as least important. For this reason, “range of 10” will provide
a list of 10 elements, starting from 0, implied after not indicating a start value, and ending
at the tenth consecutive number – number nine. In another cell, if in the “range” function
we declare as arguments 3 and 7, for instance, Python will accept 3 as a start value, and
7 as a stop value of the range. So, we’ll have 4 elements – 3, 4, 5, and
6. Good. To specify a step value in a range, the other
two arguments must be chosen as well. In this situation, I’ll obtain a list with
all the odd numbers from 1 to 19 included. I will start with the number 1, and the list
will end with number 19 (which equals the stop value 20 minus 1), stating only the odd
numbers. This is how we can create lists with Python’s
range function. In our next lecture, we’ll see how it can
be applied in practice. Now that you know what the “range” function
does, let’s see it in a for- loop. To print all the values from 2 to the power
of 0, 2 to the power of 1, and so on, until 2 to the power of 9, we can use the following
code: for “n” in range of 10, print “2 double star n”. I will also have to insert a comma, because
I would like to see the output on a single line. Good. I guess you can agree it was not necessary
to specify the name of a list that exists in our code – using a list created through
the “range” function is going to work too! Now, let’s be brave and create an iteration
that includes a conditional in the loop body. We can tell the computer to print all the
even values between 0 and 19 and state “Odd” in the places where we have odd numbers. Let’s translate this into computational
steps. If x leaves a remainder of 0 when divided
by 2, which is the same as to say “if x is even”, then print x on the same line. “Else”, which means unless x is even,
or if x is odd, print “Odd”. Lovely! This is an example of a combination of an
iteration and a conditional in Python. There are two main ways to program a loop,
and until this moment, we paid attention only to the first one. We have a list x that contains the numbers
0, 1, and 2. We saw we can print out each of its elements
by typing “for each item in the x list, print out that item”. The second way finds its practical application
in more sophisticated codes. Its structure takes advantage of the range
and len functions in the following way: “for each item in a range that goes through the
elements from the list x, that is “len with an argument x”, print out each item”. If we do this, the variable item will loop
through a new list created by range, and that has as many elements as the x list itself. Please note that, in this situation, the second
line of our code needs indexing to extract each item from the “x” list. In practice, we will print out the element
at position 0 from the list x, then the element at position 1, and finally the element at
position 2. To conclude, both approaches can lead to the
same outcome. Although the second one looks unnecessarily
complicated, in advanced coding, it might turn out to be a lot more useful. So, it is important you know both. We use iterations when we have to go through
variables that are part of a list. In this lesson, I’ll show you how to count
the number of items whose value is less than 20 in a list. First, define a function that takes as an
argument numbers, where “numbers” will be a certain list variable. The trick is to create a variable that, so
to speak, “departs” from 0. Let’s call it total. The idea is that, when certain conditions
are verified, total will change its value. This is why, in such a situation, it is appropriate
to call this variable a rolling sum. More technically, when we consider x in the
numbers list, if it is smaller than 20, we will increment the total by 1 and finally
return the total value. This means that, if x is less than twenty,
total will grow by 1, and if x is greater than or equal to 20, total will not grow. So, for a given list, this count function
will return the amount of numbers smaller than 20. Let’s verify if this function works properly. In this list, we have four numbers that are
less than 20, right? Let’s check that out. Great! Now, if I add 17, for example, somewhere in
the list, the outcome will adjust accordingly. 5. Exactly! Perfect! By the way, look how the whole if-statement
is indented even more to the right. This allows us to separate it logically from
the rest of the code in the cell that refers to this function. If you are eager to know how to iterate over
a dictionary in Python, and I am sure you are, you will see this in our next video. Thank you for watching! Let’s look at something a bit more challenging-
iterating over a dictionary. We have a couple of examples here. The prices of a box of spaghetti, of a portion
of lasagna, and of a hamburger are stored in a dictionary, called “prices”. Jan went to the supermarket and bought 6 boxes
of spaghetti, 10 pieces of lasagna, and no hamburgers. This data was stored in a dictionary, named
“quantity”. Our problem is: how much did Jan spend in
the supermarket? Well, it is obvious you’ll need to multiply
the quantity of each food by its price. You must have noticed our dictionaries have
exactly the same keys. We should exploit this. The procedure to go to the “box of spaghetti”
in the first dictionary and take the value of 4, then get the value of 6 from the quantity
dictionary, and then multiply those two, must be repeated for each food product. That must ring a bell.  I am sure you probably think the same
– we need a loop. Ok, that’s clear, but what are we going
to do with it? What is the loop’s body going to contain? Before anything else, some variable must account
for the amount of money spent, right? Let’s implement a well-known trick. I’ll create a rolling sum, called “money
spent”, which will initially assume the value of 0. So, we can start by iterating over each item
in prices, “i” in prices for short. At every step of the loop, I would like the
“money spent” variable to grow by the product of the price and the quantity of a
certain good “i”. And that should be enough. Let’s print the result to check whether
we were working correctly. Apparently, yes! Wow! Such a simple problem in terms of mathematics,
required to connect knowledge on dictionaries, iteration, and creating a variable with an
increment. So, from a programmer’s perspective, the
problem looks different. The good thing is that, at the end, this whole
thing boiled down to a mere four lines of coding! As a side note, do you realize that, if we
put quantity instead of prices here, the outcome will remain the same? So, what is the conclusion? It does not matter if you loop through prices
or through quantity, because the two dictionaries contain the same keys. And this is the reason this loop works correctly,
too. Thanks for watching!

2 thoughts on “Python Programming Bootcamp 2019 | Learn to Code in Python [Tutorial and Exercises]

  1. I noticed that you are using Python 2 in your tutorial. Isn't Python 3 would be more suitable since Python 2 is being retired slowly by most companies.

  2. Learn everything about Python programming – installation, Python versions, libraries, frameworks and IDEs, books, online courses, tutorials and exercises.

    https://bit.ly/2MiHC4R

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