An exclusive look behind the scenes of the U.S. military’s cyber defense

JUDY WOODRUFF: But, returning to the murky
world of cyber-attacks, and defense, the newest U.S. military command is responsible not for
a piece of land or air, but cyberspace. Special correspondent Mike Cerre has this
exclusive inside view of the men and women protecting the military’s digital networks
at United States Cyber Command. MIKE CERRE: It looks and sounds like every
other stateside military base, far from the front lines around the globe. But Fort Meade, Maryland, home base to the
National Security Agency and U.S. Cyber Command, the military’s newest combatant command, is
fighting a war every day. Admiral Mike Rogers commands both the NSA
and U.S. Cyber Command. ADM. MIKE ROGERS, National Security Agency Director:
Today, we face threats that have increased in sophistication, magnitude, intensity, volume
and velocity. MIKE CERRE: The Internet was largely created
by the Defense Department in the late ’60s, primarily for its research and development
operations. Now, like every other wired institution, it
depends on it for everything it does. As a result, the Defense Department’s information
network is now targeted by nearly 40 million malicious e-mails everyday. Colonel Paul Craft’s cyber-protection teams
defend the network from this top secret operations center called the JSOC. COL. PAUL CRAFT, Defense Information Systems Agency:
We do not want the enemy to get a foothold into the Department of Defense’s networks,
to gain or maintain any terrain, just like they would in land. MIKE CERRE: The “NewsHour” was granted exclusive
access, under conditions we not identify team members or the cyber-defense technologies
used. Vice Admiral Nancy Norton is the commander
of the Joint Force Headquarters DoDIN, which is responsible for protecting the military’s
network. VICE ADM. NANCY NORTON, Commander, Joint Force Headquarters
DoDIN: The national defense strategy has made pretty clear that we have near peer competitors
in cyberspace from Russia and China. North Korea and Iran are also routinely working
to gain a competitive advantage by getting into our networks. MIKE CERRE: In addition to these adversaries,
U.S. military cyber-warriors fight thousands of non-state actors, terrorist groups, and
professional hackers, all committed to cracking the firewalls of cyber’s first and presumably
largest distributed network, now used for everything from combat operations and to military
health care. COL. PAUL CRAFT: Everything starts with a thing
called an indicator of compromise. It could be a malicious spear-phishing e-mail. It could be an intrusion. It could be a packet that looks malformed
for some reason, that doesn’t look right, that could do something malicious to a network. The simplest thing is to block it. But if they’re in your house, it’s about getting
that person out of your house and making sure we knew what they touched. And the network is again restored — hardened
and restored to normal. MIKE CERRE: Once inside, hackers can disrupt
a network’s operations, like they did last year to the British Health System, forcing
hospitals to down. Or they can steal confidential information,
like Equifax’s credit reports on more than 145 million Americans. So far, the most serious cyber-security breaches
of U.S. defense and intelligence networks were inside jobs. Army PFC Bradley Manning, who now identifies
as Chelsea, copied and released nearly a million classified documents. The leaking of the NSA’s surveillance techniques
and other classified material by a subcontractor, Edward Snowden. There are also accidental security breaches,
like the careless use of a flash drive by a military unit in the Middle East in 2008
that temporarily created an opening into the Defense Department’s network. These cyber-teams are drawn from all the services
and ranks. Some were trained by the military. Others were recruited for their cyber-skills. COL. PAUL CRAFT: It’s not like fighting a war in
another domain, where you deploy troops, you fight, you go home. Conflict in the cyber-domain is constant. MAN: I can shut down your power grids. I can paralyze your infrastructure. MIKE CERRE: A line of code buried in this
Army recruiting ad generated nearly 800,000 hacking attempts on a fake military Web site. The 1 percent cracked the site were invited
to join the military’s cyber-warfare team. MIKE CERRE: Training and retaining this new
generation of cyber-warriors is an ongoing challenge. WOMAN: I could walk out today and get a very
easily six-figure salary. It’s not about the money. It’s about the pride in your job and what
you do for the American people. LT. GEN. VINCENT STEWART, Deputy Commander, U.S. Cyber
Command: The challenge we have isn’t recruiting. The challenge is retention. MIKE CERRE: Lieutenant General Vincent Stewart
is a deputy commander with U.S. Cyber Command. LT. GEN. VINCENT STEWART: The metaphor I like to use
in this space, it’s like playing hockey. You’re constantly on the move in both offense
and defense. And it’s fast-paced, it’s hectic, and one
goal can change the outcome. MIKE CERRE: General Stewart can’t elaborate
on Cyber Com’s offensive tactics, like those recently used to try to disrupt ISIS’ online
recruiting and media operation, or what, if any involvement the U.S. had with the widely
reported, but officially denied cyber-attack on an Iranian nuclear facility, using a software
virus called Stuxnet which disabled critical equipment. PETER SINGER, New America Foundation: What
was created with Stuxnet wasn’t just an operation to sabotage Iranian nuclear research. It was a new kind of weapon. MIKE CERRE: Peter singer, with the new America
Foundation, and other defense analysts believe the Iranian attack to be a major turning point
in cyber-warfare. PETER SINGER: They created a weapon, something
that caused physical damage, but it was unlike every other in history, in that it was computer
software. It was a bunch of zeros and ones. MIKE CERRE: But it is a more recent cyber-attack,
on the 2016 presidential election, that is now the concern. Detecting, let alone stopping the Russian
meddling, wasn’t Cyber Command’s job, since it was largely executed on Facebook and other
public social media networks, the military is prohibited from intervening with. LT. GEN. VINCENT STEWART: Do you want the intelligence
community to work within the civilian sector? MIKE CERRE: Do you think the civilian elements
of this space have the capacity to defend them at the level you can defend? LT. GEN. VINCENT STEWART: Yes. MIKE CERRE: You think they can? LT. GEN. VINCENT STEWART: Yes. MIKE CERRE: So, they don’t need your help? LT. GEN. VINCENT STEWART: This is an issue of priority. This is an issue of some resources, but it’s
an issue of focus. PETER SINGER: That’s actually what has clouded
the debate over 2016, is you have these intelligence agencies seeing things coming in, seeing things
hit American political institutions, but, of course, they’re not supposed to be involved
in American political questions. And then, on top of it, it throws them into
a partisan debate. And that’s why it’s been so difficult. MIKE CERRE: The Senate Armed Services Committee
recently challenged Cyber Command’s Admiral Mike Rogers on the U.S. response to the Russian
interference. SEN. JACK REED (D), Rhode Island: Essentially,
we have not taken on the Russians yet? ADM. MIKE ROGERS: It’s probably fair to say that
we have not opted to engage in some of the same behaviors that we are seeing. LT. GEN. VINCENT STEWART: This is not just about the
Chinese. This is about the Russians. This is about the Iranians. These are all our potential adversaries who
understand the things that underpin Western liberal democracies and are going after it. That’s what keeps me awake. MIKE CERRE: In the cyber-realm, an attack
can dismantle infrastructure and networks. It can also destroy faith in institutions. For the “PBS NewsHour,” Mike Cerre, reporting
from Fort Meade, Maryland.

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